India i.e Bharat or Republic of India as it is officially called is a seventh largest country by area located in south of Asia. It is bounded by Arabian sea on southwest, Indian ocean on south and Bay of Bengal on southeast. 

India’s relations with the world have evolved immensely during recent times owing to the heightened level of assertive engagements of current government.

It shares its land border with Pakistan in the west, China, Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east.

In this article, we would learn various aspects of India ranging from demography, topography, Indian armed forces strength, climatic conditions among other things.


With one sixth of the world’s population, India has overtaken China as the most populous country in the world and also the largest democracy. As per United Nation’s world population report, India’s population stands at 1.428 Billion and is estimated to reach 1.7 Billion by 2050. With median age of 28.7 years, as per 2022 report, India has the largest young workforce and harnessing this demographic dividend, it is the fastest growing economy in the world. 


Indian topography is as rich as its culture. Here are important features of Indian topography:

The Himalayan Ranges:

Spanning across 13 Indian states from Jammu &Kashmir in the north to the Arunanchal Pradesh in the east, Himalayan ranges is responsible for providing water to major part of Indian subcontinent and it nurtures vast cultures of exquisite flora and fauna. 

Indo Gangetic Plains:

Indo Gangetic plains spread across 700,000 KM2 is fertile plain bound by Himalayas in the north and is source of fertile alluvium soil deposited across the regions between Indus and Ganga river system.  The flat and fertile terrain has harbored various civilizations from Indus valley era.

Thar desert

Located in north west of India, Thar desert is 18th largest desert with 85% area inside India and rest in Pakistan. More than 60% of the desert falls in Indian state of Rajasthan. There are several protected areas in this region to preserve the unique ecosystem and diverse fauna including blackbuck or Antilope cervicapra, chinkara (Gazella bennettii) and Indian wild ass (Equus hemionus khur). 

Apart from these, there are also Western and Eastern Ghats, Deccan plateau and coastal plains along the coastlines. Each of them harbour their unique flora and fauna.


India presents a vibrant tapestry of religions which include Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism and various local faiths and belief systems. Hinduism, which is practiced by around 80% of the population, dominates the landscape with its myriad of Gods enriching the country’s spiritual aspect.

Islam was introduced to India by various traders and conquerors from the west and is now the second largest religion of the Nation. Despite this diversity, India as a secular nation presents a unique blend of religious practices and festivities all year around fostering harmony, unity and mutual respect for each other.  Among major religions, the country also harbours numerous indigenous and tribal belief systems. 

Languages and Dialects: 

Like vast religious beliefs, India presents its rich linguistic mosaic with 22 official languages and hundreds of dialects spoken across various regions. Hindi is the language of the majority followed by English which is extensively used for majorly official and administrative purposes. 

Armed Forces- Strength 

With 1.4 million active personnel, India boasts second largest military force. Equipped with high altitude combat skills, Indian armed forces have set record for highest altitude mountain warfare when India battled Pakistan during the Kagil war of 1999.

Indian troops have also showcased adept skillset in Jungle warfare and Desert warfare during various battles fought against neighboring countries like Pakistan and China and also during various peacekeeping operations of United Nation. Indian armed forces comprises of:

Indian Army: 

Indian Army comprises of Approximately 1.2 Million active personnel, India army is considered among most formidable and disciplined armed forces. 

Indian Navy:

Indian navy has around 67000 active personnel

Indian Airforce:

About 140000 active personnel

Indian Coast Guard:

Around 10,000 active personnel

NDA Training academies

To recruit and train officers of the Indian Armed forces, various institutions have been constituted where cadets are trained together before going into respective cadres and services. Important institutes include:

National Defence Academy, Pune

This is joint services academy which caters tri services. 

Indian Military Academy, Dehradun

This caters officers of the esteemed Indian Army.

Indian Naval Academy, Ezhimala

As the name suggests, this institution is for officers of Indian Navy.

Airforce Academy Dundigal

This is a premier training centre of Indian Air force.

Latest Indian Warfare Equipment:

India is constantly working on modernization of weapons and equipment and is currently extensively spending on development of in house state of the art weapons and modern equipment and capital procurement from countries like France and closest ally Russia. Latest additions include:

Rafale Fighter Jets: 

The infamous Rafale Jets have been procured from France

INS Vikrant

It is India’s very own first indigenous aircraft carrier.

Arjun Tank:

Once again, Indigenously developed battle tank which has been exported as well to various nations.

INS Arihant:

It is Nuclear powered ballistic submarine

Tejas Light combat Aircraft

This aircraft has been developed with the help of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. 

Crucial Battles and Battlefields

Indian armed forces are recognised as one of the most formidable and disciplined forces of the world. Indian armed forces have fought many wars since Independence and have showcased its strength during various peacekeeping missions of United Nation. 5 crucial battles include:

Kashmir War of 1947- 48.

India China War of 1962.

India Pakistan War of 1965.

India Pakistan War of 1971.

Kargil War, 1999

These battles have shaped the strategic and tactical skillset of Indian armed forces and have proved their valour. 

In conclusion we can say the India is a nation of immense diversity and enriching cultural and religious beliefs and is home to plethora of flora and fauna owing to its rich biodiversity. Its demographic vastness, vivid topography, formidable and  robust armed force, historical battles and unique history, they all contribute to its rich and unique identity. 


This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.
This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.