With the aims of making India a global knowledge superpower, the Union Cabinet has approved the new National Education Policy, on 29th July 2020, with an aim to introduce several changes in the Indian education system. Now we provide you all the detail about new education policy.
CHANGES IN SCHOOL EDUCATION:
- Universalization of education from preschool to secondary level with 100% Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in school education.
- The current 10+2 system to be replaced by a new 5+3+3+4 curricular structure corresponding to ages 3-8, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years respectively. Grade 3, 5 and 8 will be provided open learning and open public schools through NIOS. The new system has proposed 12 years of school education with 3 years of pre-schooling. It will bring the uncovered age group of 3-6 years under school curriculum.
- National Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education will be created by NCERT for children up to 8 years old. Strengthened educational systems like Anganwadis and Kindergartens will focus on Early Childhood Care and Education. Anganwadi workers and kindergarten teachers will be trained in ECCE pedagogy programs.
- Ministries of Human Resource Development, Health and Family Welfare, Women and Child Development and Tribal Affairs will collectively administer the ECCE.
- Special attention will be given to the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Group (SEDG). SEDG includes gender, geographical, cultural and social disabilities. Disadvantaged regions will have special education zones.
- Disabled students will be allowed for regular schooling with the help of teachers specialized for disable students. Training,accommodations, appropriate technology, etc will be provide to disabled students taking up regular schooling.
- States/districts are advised to set up day-boarding schools – “Bal Bhavan” for participation in extra activities that will be career and play related.
- To promote the mother tongue/regional language, teaching up to at least Grade 5 will be in mother tongue/regional language. No language will be imposed on any student.
- Sanskrit will be an optional third language subject at all levels of the school. Other than Sankrit, other languages will also be available as optional subjects.Secondary level education will include teaching of other foreign languages as well.
- Indian Sign Language(ISL) will be made standard across the country and teaching material for students with hearing impairments will be developed for national and state schools.
- Vocational education will also be imparted from 6th grade with internships. National Curricular Framework For School Education will be created by NCERT.
- Class 10 and 12 board examinations to be made easier, the pattern will be restructured aiming to test core competencies rather than memorised facts, all students will be allowed to take the exam twice.
- A new National Assessment Center, Performance, Assessment, Review and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development (PARAKH) will be established as a standard-setting body.
- School governance is set to change, with a new accreditation fra mework and an independent authority to regulate both public and private schools.
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CHANGES IN HIGHER EDUCATION:
- Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education to be raised to 50% by 2035.
- 3.5 crore seats to be added in higher education.
- 6% of GDP will be invested in education.
- The policy provides holistic undergraduate education with a flexible curriculum of 3 or 4 years with multiple exit options and appropriate certification, with more options in choosing the subjects and focusing more on vocational education.
- The Higher Education Commission of India will be established as a single and comprehensive coordinating body for all higher education, except for medical and legal education.
- MPhil courses will now be terminated and all the courses at undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD level will now be interdisciplinary. Academic Bank of Credits to be established to facilitate Transfer of Credits.
- The National Research Foundation will be created as an apex body for fostering a strong research culture and building research capacity.
- Both the public and private higher education institutes will be governed under the same norms.
- All entrance exams for higher education institutes and universities will be held commonly.
- Multidisciplinary Education and Research Universities, at par with IITs, IIMs, to be set up as models of best multidisciplinary education of global standards.
- Affiliation of colleges is to be phased out in 15 years and a stage-wise mechanism to be established for granting graded autonomy to colleges. Over a period of time, every college is expected to develop into either an autonomous degree-granting College, or a constituent college of a university.
- National Educational Technology Forum (an autonomous body), will be created to provide a platform for the free exchange of ideas on the use of technology.
- It also paves the way for foreign universities to set up campuses in India.
- National Institute for Pali, Persian and Prakrit, Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation to be set up.
- All types of occupational education and training will be a fundamental part of the higher education system. An internship of 10 days in a year will also be provided to the students in local vocations according to the area or region.
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CHANGES IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHER’S RECRUITMENT:
Teachers will now be recruited with more transparent processes and promotions will be merit-based. The Common National Professional Standards will be created by NCTE by 2022, in deliberation with NCERT.
CHANGES IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHER TRAINING:
NCTE will formulate a new comprehensive national educational framework for teacher training, in consultation with NCERT. As per the policy of the new education system, by 2030, a teacher will require a minimum of B.Ed degree of 4 years for teaching in any institution.
- Part IV of Indian Constitution, Article 45 and Article 39 (f) of Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP), has a provision for state-funded as well as equitable and accessible education.
- The 42nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1976 moved education from the State to the Concurrent List.
- The education policies by the Central government provides a broad direction and state governments are expected to follow it. But it is not mandatory, for instance Tamil Nadu does not follow the three-language formula prescribed by the first education policy in 1968.
- The 86th Amendment in 2002 made education an enforceable right under Article 21-A.
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